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时间:2015-11-15 来源:未知 编辑:白族孩子 阅读:

Traditional sport is a sport that is created by the people of the region, the nation, or a particular group of people. Different from modern sport, traditional sport is a kind of folk sport, and it emphasizes the cultural attribute of sport. The traditional sports of the minority nationalities have their own characteristics compared with other traditional sports. For example, the national character, regional, historical, and diversity of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality, for example, are embodied in the Bai nationality. In this paper, the characteristics, functions and development of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality in Dali are studied in this paper.


Characteristics of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality in 1


Dali Bai create and spread the traditional sports activities mainly overlord whip dance, encouraged by 1.80, Dage ", martial arts," US monkey silly monk ", dragon boat racing, dragon dance, lion playing, throwing Hydrangea, knives (concentrated in Yunlong County Bai inhabited villages, march street racing (also known as happy valley), swing (also known as swing, swing), Jin wrench, tug of war, vault (also known as jump goat), jump" iron threshold ", jump flowerpot etc.. Due to traffic hub in the western Yunnan Dali, Bai and Han, Tibetan, Hui, Naxi, Lisu and other nationalities have frequent economic and cultural exchanges, the Bai nationality traditional sports activities with the geographical, ethnic, religious, inheritance, aesthetic etc. features of cultural pluralism.


1.1 regional regional is the characteristic of the traditional sports of the minority nationality in the space, that is, the geographical features or the local characteristics. Dali "exopathogens, often as early spring, cold to stop in a cool, summer temperature, summer moderate" good climatic conditions, sunlight, water and soil conditions suitable for grown in rice, Erhai Lake is for fishing and provides favorable natural conditions, the rice farming, fishing and hunting act of production and labor gradually transformed into the sports activities and games, "people of the ethnic minorities also plays a producer and consumer of traditional ethnic sports" the dual role of [3]. Such as origin to farming ritual "Yang opened the door". The annual seedling transplanting season, Dali Bai to held a traditional folk festival "transplanting", Bai young men and women (Jinhua back seedlings, Peng picking seedling) of rice seedlings the competition. Zaiyang Jinhua to "seedling flag" lined up, according to the "seedling officer" to adjust the speed of the rhythm of Zaiyang gong. Gong quickly planted fast, slow, slow planted gong. According to the traditional Bai said: transplanting field more lively more joyous, seedling transplanting tune sings more beautiful, rice growing will be better, years of achievements will harvest. And picturesque, outstanding point Cangshan since ancient times will in the martial arts has a great charisma, folklore midpoint Cang area of martial arts legend everywhere, forming a "more than five hundred years, Cang legend" such a humane environment. In Dali Bai people, because of the large space of residential area, the sports activities may not be entirely consistent. Such as living in the Yunlong, Jianchuan, Eryuan Heqing etc. mountain Bai people, due to the restriction of the natural environment, gathering and hunting is the main mode of production, compared with the dam Bai, in sports events much crossbow shooting and other activities, "Dage" form is also different. Of course, in the areas inhabited by many nationalities, the Bai nationality and other ethnic groups in the long term, the traditional sports activities will gradually close and consistent, such as swing, horse racing by the National People's favorite.


1.2 national minority traditional sports activities constitute an important aspect of the national characteristics, but also a national outstanding performance, a nation always stressed that "some are different from other ethnic customs, life style characteristics, to give a strong feeling, it is a symbol of HUAWEI". Dali Bai nationality traditional sports in the development of long-term also formed a unique cultural form, including psychological state and national consciousness, such as Bai Bai Wushu boxing, three HuaQuan, broken fist four etc.. Nationality is also reflected in a national funeral rites and customs activities. Bai sports scene is usually a 'man of God with amusement' atmosphere, or the auspicious, or solemn, simple style, rich color "[5]. Such as Bai men and women transferring affection of throwing the ball, mate. Throwing Hydrangea, young men and women each team, keep a certain distance between juggling, throw not to specify the location of the lost count; Bai wedding on a jump of the custom of "iron threshold" and "US monkey fool monk" performing ". Silly monkey monk" is "Bai folk a difficulty larger gymnastics table play activities" [6], by two people, a man dressed as monkey king, a dress up as Maitreya monk, monk and the monkey king play, skip square table, table, two stool, square stool every angle and horizontal and vertical each range. Ask two people must have strong physical skills, graceful movements accurately, more difficult "pyramid" (36 table cumulative), at the top of the desktop placed a square stool alone, the two rolling around on the desktop, jumping, and the scene was exciting.

1.3 religious people of the Bai nationality has a complex belief system. The history of Nanzhao, Dali's Buddhist beliefs, Bai common religious, also maintained "worship the Lord" and Taoism belief. Bai ritual activities, leading people to offer sacrifices to the ancestors and the gods of the priests (wizard) jump witch dance, showing the good physical skills, such as "around the Sanling" activities of mulberry dance, Overlord whip dance and encouraged by 1.80; dragon is an important object of Benzhu religion and totem worship, originated in the worship of the Dragon serve and commemorate the charitable lady in the play sea could be Bai mass annual Torch Festival, the seventh month of the lunar year fishing corpse important festivals, will hold dragon boat races and with rain dragon activities; Bai martial arts also and religion have close contact. The martial arts development early, Nanzhao period have a set of military system and competition system, west of the city of Dali was a martial field. The monks, long road, all to get involved in Cangshan celebrity paladin is the greatest blessing. The essence of factions of martial arts, including a variety of works brought by the Buddhist practice of nature with the air plant here. According to the record, the Nanzhao period has the red dress monk master of the flying pot. In the period of Dali, Dali has a hereditary kaoi in the South with stick boxing. After early Yuan in Dali Mount Emei Baiyun cold long disciple Zhong Qinghe wandering the solstices Cangshan view will commute to this, Professor Qi Men Dun Jia, cater to the needs of various method. Hongwu twenty-six years, Zhang Sanfeng (Xuan Su long) again and Jizu mountain no according to Jackson solstices Cang, trust of the Hongwu emperor, settlements Cang 28 years, lingjiu view in thatched sentinel West. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Jizu mountain, Gantong temple, inaction temple, Temple monks martial arts, better known the zonglan Jackson, vigorously Jackson, Zhi Feng and Longyu female martial.


1.4 the inheritance of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality is the inheritance of the Bai nationality's historical and cultural heritage, the Bai nationality traditional sports activities and the folk festival organic fusion, the performance of the folk custom sports culture aggregation function and the inheritance function. Bai "Dage", March Street horse racing, swing and other traditional sports has strong stability, dependent on seasonal and ritual culture festivals, has few big changes and changes in a long historical period, "in the atmosphere of the ritual culture, folk sports activity value and point to have taken place in the change" [7]. "The lock in the mountains and the mountains" contained in "the foot of the song, or beat the whip....... The legend has it that in Nanzhao, thousands of hundred years cannot ban ". Like" around the mountain spirit "this set of folklore and religion for the inheritance of various farming Festival is solid, mulberry dance, Bawangbian dance in the process of inheritance reflects a heritage of nature and freedom. With farming ritual and the main worship, hi Chau Bawangbian, Jianchuan "Xiao pull", Shilong overlord whip and Yunlong, Western Hills Eryuan "bulag high" Bai "Dage" has been passed. The people gathered in a circle, hand in hand, arm in arm, singing songs, beat co-author, the pace of action, toward a direction of movement, dance song, the spectacle of warm, the atmosphere is moving.


1.5 the aesthetic culture of the Bai nationality is closely related to the production of the Bai nationality, religion, folk arts, customs and so on. Both competitive sport dragon boat racing, horse racing, "US monkey dumb" monk, Bawangbian dance performances and entertainment projects. Beauty of wearing a flower hook two Dali, Jianchuan Bai overlord whip in length and decoration, "pat" skills are also different, but indispensable to shoulder, arm, chest, feet, legs, knees, hands, waist and flapping motion, common routine 12, 14, 16, the combination of "dragon spit water" and "back-to-back", "heart to heart" and "feet feet", "phoenix", "street", "double flowers", "the five of clubs" formation techniques, with the Bai Daben music music, show Bai women form beauty, the beauty of posture, dress, the overall beauty, modelling beauty and spiritual beauty.


The function of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality in 2


2.1 social functions


2.1.1 to meet the needs of the individual is the basic function of physical fitness, to achieve the purpose of health. The function of the body of the body of the Bai nationality traditional sports is very obvious, such as horse racing, dragon boat racing, martial arts, swing, and so on. To complete these activities must have a good endurance, physical strength and cold resistance. In addition to mastering the action and improve skills, exercise can develop to overcome the difficulties of the will, but also play a role in regulating the psychological. The traditional sports of the original nature, entertainment is more obvious, such as "the silly monkey monk", interesting action performers imitating the monkey; Bai Zhong Quan martial arts egrets leg, centipede, toad, little pale pie, spider peacock and Zaocys Wudu etc. in boxing, martial arts must imitate lifelike, show imitate the characteristics of the object and human body strength and beauty; Eryuan, Yunlong mountain Bai "is high" (also translated as "dance dance") it has spread, 600 years, its action with "Wuqinxi" similar, formed by imitation and expression of creation, "a grace" (suckling lamb "(Wang Daiguang)", "eagle wings)", is from grilled (Ma Xiang kick) "," five private gas brush (Monkey Spin) "17 jump method, from the law of nature, physical fitness at the same time to rest the mind.









2.1.2 adjust the relationship between man and nature, man and man, the nature of the Bai people, the concept of "harmony between man and nature", the Dali property culture, especially the Bai culture by the "nature and man". The Bai people think that heaven and earth and people are mutual induction, and pay attention to the coordination of the overall relationship, emphasizing the harmonious coexistence between man and nature, people and people, which is also the cultural tradition of minority sports hidden in the bottom of the consciousness, the supreme value standard. The Bai people of the Bai nationality have a rich imagination and aesthetic concept, and have infiltrated the humanistic consciousness in sports activities. For example "Dage" formation through toward the center of the circle dance, is a symbol of unity; open seedling gate activity in seedling flag ", seedling officer, Chaodou and transplanting game, given the folk sports events are rich in symbolic meaning, reflects the rice farming ethnic for natural awe and respect and reverence of labor, but also reflects the psychological characteristics of Bai people are good at intuitive thinking.


2.1.3 is an important part of the intangible cultural heritage, which is the important part of the intangible cultural heritage. Bai traditional sports is the carrier of the traditional culture, and the Dali people who grow up in the traditional culture, have a subtle effect. Dali scattered and mixed with 13 world minorities. 9 minorities with small population, more than 40 kinds of ethnic composition, the mutual influence of minority cultures, folk sports with festivals can disseminate and exchange. As early as in the Tang Dynasty in Nanzhao period, the specific weapon, sword, Yu Lang duo sheath knife has been ranked among the best in the central plains. Those who are competitive and interesting, need to cooperate with the sports activities also improve the cohesion of the group. People exchanges become close, social honor sense, social collective consciousness increases, but also to strengthen the national emotion, "Bai sports in Bai individuals, Bai ethnic group, Bai communities and counties, prefectures and, even between Pan Bai region, continue to to open attitude, communication, integration, removal of fetal bone in surrounded, and further vigor and vitality" [9].


2.2 education function


People start from the birth to live in the world of symbols, these symbols are ancestors from ancestors there learning have been handed down from generation to generation of humans to survive must learn the existing symbol system, the process is called education. Mr. Ma Rong believes that "education" means the transfer of valuable knowledge and skills. For example, the elderly lead the new hunter to learn to hunt, catch fish, not just the speed and strength of the training, from the pre hunting ceremony to what prey can not prey (totem or other reasons), to the distribution of the game is a symbol of education. In Erhai cultural circle, the Bai people have a common history, psychology, life style and collective cultural memory. A more formal and systematic teaching, such as martial arts, "US monkey fool monk", horse racing, knives, random and fragmentary teaching, such as overlord whip, "Dage", throwing Hydrangea, wrench Jin, tug of war, vault, jump "iron threshold". In the folk of sports skills and cultural styles influence is an important way for the inheritance of minority sports. A lot of people through the "Raosanling", Yang opened the door, playing the sea etc. festivals and marriage and funeral customs, the sacrifice to hands-on learning, to master the national cultural symbol system and sports skills. Each nation wants to have the unique language, cultural traditions, customs and habits of the national characteristics of the culture as the main content and basic aspects of education, which is "a nation to survive and develop the deep reasons, but also the normal National Heart emotional reflection". Therefore, folk sports have the function of education, and human beings are relying on this way to pass on the culture and strengthen national identity before school.


3 on the development of the Bai nationality traditional sports activities


3.1 The status quo of the development of the traditional sports activities of the Bai nationality in

  3.1.1 The Bai nationality traditional sports activities in the Dali area has a good mass base Dali statehood in 58 years, the vigorous development of mass fitness activities across the state, often involved in the number of physical exercise has reached over 100 million people, schools in the implementation of the national physical exercise standard standard number every year to increase steadily. By 2006, it had been held in Dali in March, the 18 national traditional sports meeting in Quanzhou. 1956, 1982, 1985, 2002, Dali has hosted the first session of Yunnan Province, the second, the third, the Seventh National Traditional Sports games. The state of Dali County town of 10 auspicious auspicious clouds township was named Yunnan province sports township. Many of the Bai nationality traditional sports activities by creating a minority traditional sports performance, and won the Games in the performance project and adapted evolution for the mass fitness activities, such as by the evolution of the Dragon Boat Race bench dragon "Ji Jinhua", Bawangbian dance won Yunnan Province minority traditional sports will be performing the project first prize, open door seedlings evolved race seedling music "won the ninth national minority traditional sports performance project first prize. Overlord whip dance has become a popular in Dali City, county, township public square fitness exercise. "Match seedling music performing the project by rice seedling planting contest scenes show Bai people advocating natural, positive and optimistic attitude towards life and a strong culture of the Bai nationality, will dance and sports as a whole, very ethnic and ornamental. The opening time of year, have attracted people of all ethnic groups in the state, domestic and foreign tourists to watch and participate in interactive.


3.1.2 Bai traditional sports activities are facing the danger of the plight of the Bai nationality traditional sports activities are a valuable cultural heritage accumulated in the long-term social practice of the Bai people, which has a unique exercise value and spiritual connotation. Since the start of the development of tourism in 1980s, the Dali society has experienced from the traditional agricultural and fishery economy to the modern commodity economy, the folk sports have been unprecedented impact, the Bai traditional sports activities in the modern commercial society is simple and commercial, the spiritual value of the folk sports is disappearing. Origin in ancient wars of the Bai nationality Wushu is by the military creation, extension, rheological and gradually the demise of sporting events such as, in addition to pale pie, Bai swordplay and boxing retention has been quite small; "beautiful monkey fool monk" in modern society also is hard to find traces. And dragon boat race is more and more simple, dragon dance, lion playing, throwing Hydrangea, knives and other sporting events, the gradual commercialization of the march street racing, swing, wrench Jin, tug of war, vault, jump "iron threshold", jump flowerpot etc. sports activities only in Dali local folk to see. Related sports can not play a role in the development of national sports, the lack of the necessary publicity, the young people of the Bai traditional sports activities are also very few.


Countermeasures for the development of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality in 3.2


3.2.1 the protection and development of the Bai nationality traditional sports activities with the spiritual value of the significance of national traditional sports is not with the commercialization and annihilation. National traditional sports activity focuses on people's physical and mental health and emotional desire to meet, is not subject to restrictions of space equipment, rules are simple and easy to carry out, physical fitness effect, easy accepted by the age of mass characteristics, and fully reflect the national culture, customs and habits, aesthetic taste and national feelings of a region. Rescue, protection and development of the Bai traditional sports activities, mining, sorting out more scattered in the folk sports, the meaning is not just for the people to enhance their physical fitness or improve the level of sports technology, and more important is to improve the quality of national culture, strengthen national cohesion. In 2013, in the efforts of the parties, the Dali point of the martial arts were selected in Yunnan Province, the protection of intangible cultural heritage.


3.2.2 increase the support to the Bai traditional sports activities with the influence of the Bai traditional sports activities, the government should strengthen the support to the folk sports, and guide social investment, protect the Bai traditional sports and the unique culture of the Bai nationality. The heritage of folk sports should be supported, it is proposed to restore the national traditional sports games once a year, to provide protection for the continuation of the Bai folk sports, and promote the continuous development of the national fitness in Dali.

3.2.3 popularization of Bai nationality traditional sports national sports to enter school has gradually become the inevitable trend of the new curriculum reform of the education and physical education and health curriculum. Overlord whip dance, star star has tried to introduce the introduction of a part of the primary school in Dali, has achieved good results. Dali University has made a useful exploration and experiment in the introduction of the National Traditional Sports in Colleges and universities, which is based on the characteristics of the Bai nationality traditional sports activities, the introduction and development of the Dali University sports teaching of. A survey on the current situation of community sports development in Dali shows that the introduction of the Bai People's fitness exercises to make money shortage, sports equipment, venues and other issues to ease, but also enrich the contents of sports fitness activities, to stimulate people's interest in the exercise of the Bai nationality, and to promote the development of the traditional sports of the Bai nationality and the construction of harmonious ethnic relations.




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