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英语作业:Overview of junior middle school students English

时间:2015-11-05 来源:未知 编辑:路易斯 阅读:

1. Introduction

1.1 Research background

Nobody can deny the importance of vocabulary when it turns to English languagelearning. The famous linguist Wilkins (1972) put it like this: “Without grammar verylittle can be conveyed; without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed'. We can neverignore the importance of vocabulary. It is through vocabulary that little babies begin toleam their mother tongue. And only through vocabulary can successful English learningbe possible.” Inadequate vocabulary becomes the major problem of language learners toleam a language.' (Nation, 2004). The more vocabulary a language learner has gained,the better the learner can communicate with others in the foreign language.During a very long period of time, English vocabulary learning strategies neverattracted too much attention from English teachers and linguists, and they pay veryspecial attention to pronunciation and syntax,which they think are the most importantthings of linguistics. Many people think that the only thing about learning vocabulary isto remember them list by list.



Since the 1970s, a great many researchers and teachers have been showing greatinterests in second language learners. As a result,second language learning strategies arevery popular. And especially,the studies of vocabulary learning strategies are verypopular. As vocabulary is one of the three elements of a language, with no doubtvocabulary is of great importance to language learners. As Oxford (2008) argues,'By farvocabulary is most difficult thing to leam whether as a first language or a secondlanguage because there are huge amount of vocabulary and in most cases one word mayhas various kinds of meanings. The researches on vocabulary learning strategies mayhelp language learners leam vocabulary more efficient and easier.,,But for many studentssuch as junior high school students it is especially difficult to leam vocabulary well. As aresult,it will be helpful if the students know some vocabulary learning strategies. And sowe teachers have better try our best to help the students to pay more attention to leamvocabulary learning strategies. Many researchers have done a lot of researches in thisfield, but most researches focused more on proficient learners, such as college studentsand graduates. The vocabulary learning strategies of junior high school students areseldom mentioned. As Oxford (2008:30) comments,“Less proficient language learnersand proficient language learners use language learning strategies differently'. This articleis based on Wuhan Middle School students, which can be of great importance to improvethe vocabulary learning of the students in Wuhan Middle School.Vocabulary itself is very important for junior high school students to learn English.This study aims to investigate about the strategies of English vocabulary learning ofWuhan Middle School and to help them to find more efficient ways to improve theirvocabulary learning. And this study is also supposed to find the pedagogical implicationsfor all the English teachers.



2. Literature Review

2.1 Language learning strategies

Many researchers and linguists have defined and classified learning strategies andvocabulary learning strategies Firstly, the author will list the definitions andclassifications of learning strategies and then followed the definitions and classificationsof vocabulary learning strategies. Because of the differences of the focus on the study of learning strategies, thedefinitions of learning strategies inevitably are different. As a whole, linguists considerlearning strategies as the learning activities,procedures or specific learning methods orlearning skills that used to promote learning efficiency,or to accomplish a learningplan. The following definitions are widely accepted at home and abroad at present: Learning strategies are the concrete means and methods used by languagelearners to gain language knowledge (Rubin,1987). Learning strategies are the common trends and general characteristics of themethods used by language learners (Stem,1983). Learning strategies are the thoughts and behaviors of coding process thatlearners try to consciously use to affect their learning (Weinstein, & Mayer, 1986). Learning strategies are the efforts made by language learners to improve theirlanguage skills and communicative competence in the process of language learning(Tarone, 1989).
许多研究者和语言学家的定义和分类学习策略和词汇学习策略首先,笔者将列出了学习策略的定义和再定义和语用classificationsof词汇学习策略。由于对学习策略研究的重点的差异,学习策略的定义必然是不同的。作为一个整体,语言学家considerlearning策略作为学习活动,程序或具体的学习方法或学习能力,提高学习效率,或完成一个learningplan。下面的定义在国内外广泛接受目前:学习策略的具体方法和使用的语言学习者获得语言知识的方法(Rubin,1987)。学习策略是与共同趋势的语言学习者使用的方法的一般特征(干,1983)。学习策略是编码过程thatlearners的思想和行为的尝试有意识地使用影响学习(韦恩斯坦,& Mayer,1986)。学习策略是语言学习者提高语言学习过程中的语言技能和交际能力的努力(并且,1989)。



Huge amounts of researches have been done in this area especially at abroad.Researches at home and at abroad will be introduced separately. When introducingresearches at home,researches done on college students and on middle school studentswill be presented respectively. Since the studies of foreign language learning strategies were introduced to China in1990s,many Chinese language researchers began to do the relevant researches. Quitemany researchers have done a lot of researches. College students and middle schoolstudents make up the majority of the research objects. Whereby, college students arerelatively more often chosen as research subjects. Two reasons may explain this situation.One is that most researchers are working in colleges so it is more convenient for them todo researches on the college students. And another reason may be that compared withmiddle school students,college students are more proficient language learners, who areapt to try all kinds of vocabulary learning strategies to help leam vocabulary. In thefollowing part, the author will discuss the researches done on college students and middleschool students respectively.


3. Methodology......... 13

3.1 Research questions......... 13

3.2 Research subject......... 13

3.3Reseaxch instrument .........13
3.3reseaxch仪器......... 13

3.3.1 The questionnaires......... 13

3.3.2 The interview .........14
3.3.2面试......... 14

3.4 Data collection......... 14

4. Results and Discussions .........15
4。结果与讨论......... 15

4.1 The general beliefs of vocabulary learning strategies......... 15

4.2 The specific vocabulary learning strategies......... 16

4.3 The differences of successfiil language learners......... 25
4.3 ......... successfiil的语言学习者的差异25

5. Pedagogical Implications.........30
5。启示......... 30

5.1 Changing the students' learning beliefs .........30
5.1要改变学生的学习观念......... 30

5.2 Developing meta-cognitive vocabulary learning strategies......... 30

5.3 Developing effective cognitive vocabulary learning strategies......... 32

5.4 Developing effective social/affective ......... 34



5.1 Changing the students' learning beliefs

We can see from the questionnaire that there are still many students who incline tobelieve that learning vocabulary by repetition is the most efficient way. And according tothe interview, successful language learners tend to learn vocabulary by context and byusing. Learning vocabulary by context and by using are indeed efficient ways to learnvocabulary. And this is in line with the research results of most of the researchers inChina. So it is important that junior high school students should raise their awareness thatvocabulary should be learned by context and by using. This kind of suggestion isespecially important of less successful language learners.English teachers can help to raise the students' awareness to change their vocabularylearning strategies. For example, the teacher can arrange some communicative meetingsamong the class, allowing successful language learners and less successful languagelearners to exchange their ideas in vocabulary learning. And also,English teachers shouldintroduce various kinds of vocabulary learning strategies to the students. Moreover, theEnglish teachers are supposed to understand each student better and offer appropriatevocabulary learning strategies to each one according to each student's language level andcharacteristics.



The research finds out that junior high school students use various kinds ofvocabulary learning strategies, which can be divided into three parts: cognitivevocabulary learning strategies, meta-cognitive vocabulary learning strategies andsocial/affective vocabulary learning strategies. The five most frequently used vocabularylearning strategies are using word list,using dictionary,using verbal repetition,association with Chinese and exposure to English media. And the five least frequentlyused vocabulary learning strategies are writing letters in English with newly learnedwords, making English sentences with newly learned words, making vocabulary learningplans, turning to others for help and learning vocabulary through online games. Generallyspeaking, the overall vocabulary strategy level is shallow as they are less proficientlanguage learners.Successful language learners and less successful language learners differtremendously in using vocabulary learning strategies. And they also show difference invocabulary learning beliefs. Successful language learners are inclined to believe thatvocabulary should be learned by using and by context while less successful languagelearners tend to believe that vocabulary should be learned by repetition. And also,successful language learners tend to use more complicated strategies and they usestrategies more effectively. The difference is mainly decided by different language levelsand different vocabulary learning attitudes.

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