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论幼儿园英语绘本阅读教学

时间:2022-11-11 来源:未知 编辑:-1 阅读:
Abstract:
Reading is a key component of English teaching in kindergartens. Efficient reading plays a vital role in the English learning. This paper discusses the definition and the problems of English picture-books reading in kindergartens, and discusses means of teaching efficient reading, such as enhancing the knowledge accumulation of culture and background information, creating a good English learning environment, cultivate the children' reading skills in kindergartens, improve the reading ability of children and develop their interests in learning English.
Keywords:
  Kindergartens English Teaching; Efficient Reading Teaching; Reading Ability
 
关键词:
  幼儿园英语教学;有效阅读教学;阅读能力
 
 
Outline:
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
  2.1 Summary of the Study/Research
3. The current situation of teaching English picture-books reading in kindergartens
  3.1 The criteria of English picture-books reading teaching in kindergartens
    3.1.1 Language Skills
    3.1.2 Language Knowledge
    3.1.3 Attitudes to Learning
    3.1.4 Learning Strategies
    3.1.5 Cultural Awareness
  3.2 The methods of English picture-books reading in kindergartens
    3.2.1 Spending more time on watching the pictures
    3.2.2 Reading words one by one
  3.3 The Problems of teaching English picture-books reading in kindergartens
    3.3.1 Little vocabulary and slow reading speed
    3.3.2 Little reading after class
    3.3.3 Single teaching methods of English picture-books reading
4. The analysis of effective picture-book reading teaching in kindergartens--taking Stone Soup as an example
  4.1 Some general teaching principles
    4.1.1 Making use of in-class teaching and after-class activities
    4.1.2 Creating good English reading environment
  4.2 Using various teaching patterns of reading
    4.2.1 Story retelling
    4.2.2 Role playing
    4.2.3 Gap-filling
    4.2.4 Culture mastered
    4.2.5 Rewriting after reading
    4.2.6 Group Discussion
5. Conclusion
 
 
 
Analysis of the Teaching of English Picture-books Reading in Kindergartens


1. Introduction 

As we know, reading is a process that the reader obtains integrated information. The reading process is an interactive top-down and bottom-up process for readers on different discourse levels such as word, sentence, text, semantic and structure. The teaching of reading is one of the most important parts of the teaching and it is organized to make the children get information, analyze structures of articles and getting to know ways to solve problems. Reading ability is one of the most important comprehensive language application abilities in the society, so it is important forkindergartens’ children to develop their reading habit and develop their interest in learning when they are young. But the current teaching method seriously neglects developing the children' interest, which affects the healthy grout of latent. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to reform the reading teaching methods applied in kindergartens at present in order to meet the demands of the quality education. 
 
The paper puts forward some new teaching methods for the English picture-books readinginkindergartens. These newmethods emphasize the children to be the main body in their studies; teachers become a guidance oran organizer. It is designed to try to establish a framework of a teacher-children relationship on English picture-books reading teaching in kindergartens based on the current study and practical research.

2. literature review

2.1 Summary of the Study/Research

 The study of English picture-books reading theory has received much more and earlier attention in foreign countries, and lots of experts have proposed their reading patterns.
In foreign countries, there are some experts who study the methods to teach children how to read picture-books in English. Cummins &Swain (1986) argued that to promote quality of English reading in the English teaching process, teachers should pay particular attention to: valuing each children's feelings; stimulating children' interest in studying English; helping children gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence. Zhou Junying & Wang Xuefei (2007)argued it is necessary to improve children' ability to contribute to cultural and social life; developing children' practical abilities; Fostering children' creativity. Fletcher&Reese (2004) argued that picture-books reading teaching needs teachers work according to the development of children’s body and mind, with emphasis on language learning process.
    There is not much domestic research in this area. Dong Hui has studied that by reading a large number of English materials, children can improve their understanding and thinking ability, and also enrich their language knowledge and enlarge their vocabulary size. Chen Yanrong (2014) believes that there are serious problems in the teaching of English picture-books reading. He argues that the traditional teaching methods of English picture-books reading show some noteworthy problems in this age with the advanced development of science and technology. Liu Xiaojun & Dai Ming (2011) believe that English teaching process of kindergartens is to let children not only understand the content of the article but also master the skill of reading.
    This paper, based on the research of many scholars for the teaching of English picture-books reading, analyzes and summarizes the main problems of the current kindergarten English picture-books reading teaching, and puts forward corresponding solving measures.

3. The current situation of teaching English picture-books reading in kindergartens

English reading refers to reading some materials in English, during which the readers use their thinking in the way the English-speaking people use and it mainly attaches importance to reading comprehension and expanding the culture awareness. Meanwhile, it emphasizes on the improvement of understanding ability of text, the application of language acquisition skills, the cultivation of genre recognition and the appreciation ability of writing style, the infiltrating teaching of cultural awareness and enhancing the cultural contrast and differences.
English picture-books reading is a way of reading picture-books with the tool of English, especially for children. In Chinese schools, English picture-books reading is a way to read some English materials in English and try to answer some questions with the understanding to the materials.
Effective picture-books reading teaching is to show children how to read picture-books to make them have some information from the books and develop their interest in English picture-books reading. English teaching mainly points that the children improve their reading knowledge and skills after a period of teaching. And after being taught, the children have a better emotional attitude of English cultures based on respecting our nation's culture. Thus the children can be enriched from the pictures, for example, getting some cross-cultural knowledge. The nature of efficient English picture-books reading teaching is to develop children’s interest in English picture-books reading in the active reading process.

3.1 The criteria of English picture-books reading teaching in kindergartens

       According to the Jim Cummins and Merrill Swain’s idea in 1986 that to promote quality of English reading in the English teaching process, teachers should pay particular attention to: valuing each children's feelings; stimulating children' interest in studying English; helping children gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence, the criteria of English teaching in kindergartens are reflected from the following five parts.
3.1.1 Language Skills
   Language skills are the essential component of communication abilities, including listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and comprehensive ability to use these skills. The skills of listening and reading is understanding, and speaking and writing is an expression of skills. They complement each other in language learning and communication, and promote each other. children should do a lot of special and comprehensive language practice so as to form a comprehensive language using ability and lay a ground for real communication.
3.1.2 Language Knowledge
  Children in the pre-school education stage should learn and master the basic knowledge of English language including pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar(Jones,2001). Language knowledge is an important part of language using ability as well as the important foundation of developing language skills.
3.1.3 Attitudes to Learning
    Emotional attitude refers to the interest, motivation, confidence, will and spirit of cooperation and so on the related factors influencing the children learning process and learning effect, and so as to gradually form in the process of learning the country consciousness and the international field of vision. Maintaining a positive learning attitude is the key to the success of English learning. The teacher should motivate and strengthen the children in the teaching of learning interest, and guide them to gradually transfer interest into a steady learning motivation so as to make them build self-confidence, exercise the will to overcome difficulties, know their own advantages and disadvantages of learning, be willing to work with others, and to form a harmonious and healthy character. Through English courses, the children can strengthen the consciousness of the motherland and expand the international field of vision.
3.1.4 Learning Strategies
Learning strategy refers to some ways with which the learners study knowledge and develop their abilities.English learning strategies include cognitive strategies, control strategy and communication strategy and resource strategy and so on. In English teaching, teachers should consciously help children to develop their learning strategies, and constantly adjust their learning strategies. In the English curriculum implementation, helping children to use learning strategies effectively not only helps them to grasp the direction of the study, adopt scientific ways, and improve the learning efficiency, but also helps them to form the ability of autonomous learning and lay a foundation for sustainability for lifelong learning.
3.1.5 Cultural Awareness
In the process of learning English, the contact and understanding of English national culture are not only beneficial to the understanding and use of English, but also conducive to deepening the understanding of the Chinese nation excellent traditional culture and love. They are also of benefit to the influence of the advanced culture belonging to all mankind and beneficial to train children' consciousness of the world. In the teaching, teachers should gradually expand the content and scope of cultural knowledge according to children's age characteristic and the cognitive ability. The English cultural knowledge involved in the teaching should be closely related to children' study and life, and arouse the children' interest in learning English.
Apart from the above five teaching criteria, in particular the teacher should pay attention to the following: encourage children to use English bravely, taking a lenient attitude towards mistakes they make during the learning process; provide children with ample opportunities to collaborate with others and to become autonomous learners; give children plenty of space for self-development; encourage children to develop their language skills in an integrated way through experiential, practical, cooperative and inquiry-based learning ; create conditions that allow children to explore questions they are personally interested in and solve problems by themselves.  
    Only when the teachers strictly adhere to these teaching criteria can they better perform the effective English picture-books reading teaching in kindergartens and can the kindergartenchildren better improve their reading abilities.

3.2 The methods of English picture-books reading in kindergartens

Now in some kindergartens, there are mainly three kinds of effective reading skills that are most used: skimming, scanning, and close-reading.
3.2.1 Spending more time on watching the pictures
Watching pictures is a waythat children tryto get an overall impression of the content. There are many situations where children do that. They usually read very fast to get the main information and only spend more time on those pictures that are more vivid and interesting.
3.2.2 Reading words one by one
Reading words one by one is a way of scanning which is also a rapid reading activity. Using this reading technique, children an locate a single fact or a specific bit of information without reading every word or every paragraph of a passage.
Reading words one by one often takes questions as clues and children find the specific information with the questions in mind. But it needs more time and the children can not understand the whole idea of one sentence.

3.3 The Problems of teaching English picture-books reading in kindergartens

According to Dong Hui(2017), it is found that there are many problems in English picture-books reading in kindergartens. In general, there are three major problems as follows.
3.3.1 Little vocabulary and slow reading speed
Vocabulary is the basic unit of language. Learning vocabulary is an important part in every language. The previous studies indicate that children should have knowledge of 95% vocabulary and they can read efficiently. Due to little vocabulary and few reading time, the reading speed of children is very slow in actual reading activity. The scarcity of vocabulary and failing understanding in reading may lead to children lose interests and confidence and form a vicious circle in the days to come.
3.3.2  Little reading after class
The efficient method to learn better language is the knowledge accumulation of culture and background information. When reading an article or a portion, the good vocabulary accumulation and good understanding of background information play a vital role in understanding the real meaning. As for the current kindergarten children, there are few reading activities after class and other activities to improve their reading ability. What's more, little reading is not favorable to the accumulation of knowledge and the development of general level of language.
3.3.3  Single teaching methods of English picture-books reading
Some demerits exist in present kindergarten English teaching, such as outmoded, single teaching mode, inflexible teaching method. The outmoded and behind course content can't attract the children' interest and it is necessary to add variety features. The single teaching mode also named as pyramid model, which has strangled children' learning competence as well as their reading individuality, does not adapt to the requirement of contemporary kindergartens English teaching any longer with the implement of the English curriculum. Therefore, it is the high time to change the single kindergarten teaching mode and it is a tendency to make full use of some advanced technology such as the multimedia and network technology and so on to enrich types of English teaching model. The cramming teaching method, which is the same as pulling up seeding to help them grow, is one of the common inflexible teaching methods for most of all kindergartens. Children are in a passive acceptance of the status under this inflexible method. It is helpless to develop the self-study ability.

4.The analysis of efficient picture-books reading teaching in kindergartens--taking Stone Soup as an example

Stone Soupis an English picture book adapted from a folk story of France. In the picture book, there are three soldiers who go to a village where they want to have something to eat. But the villagers tell them that they have no food to eat and boil tone soup for them. The reason to choose the book is because it has funny characters and interesting clues, and the story conveyssharing joy with others can make us happier.
In this part,based on the theory of Swain’s Output theory that output is the end of the input during which the learners can develop their ability in reading, grammar and vocabulary(1986),it mainly analyzes and gives the good methods of efficient reading in kindergartens. The teaching methods mainly include enhancing the knowledge accumulation of culture and background information, combining in-class teaching and after-class activities, creating good English learning environment and applying of various teaching patterns of efficient reading.
The experiment of the usage of the reading teaching model is as follows.
The subjects in the study are kindergartenchildren who are from Class 5 and Class 6 of Middle Grade in Liushan kindergarten in Nanzhao County in Henan Province. Class 6 is regarded as the experimental class and class 5 is controlled class. The participants are supposed to attend the examination. With similar studying experience and in the the same system, they can be regarded as representatives of this research. Therefore, this study will depict a comprehensive picture of kindergartenchildren’ reading ability. 
 
Table 4-1 Basic Information of the Participants
Class gender count total Remark
Class 5 boy 16 40 These children are tested
girl 24
Class 6 boy 18 40
girl 22
 
 There is some tests for them. The children are required to give answers to 10 questions. Every question are to 2 points.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table4-2 Experimental Class and Control Class Average Performance in the reading Test before the Experiment
 
  Control Class Experimental Class
reading test before the experiment 19.44 19.31
 

Picture4-1 Experimental Class and Control Class Performance Scatter plot Diagram Contrast before the Experiment
 
As can be seen from Table 4-1, before the experiment, the control class and experimental class average performance is almost equal. And Table 4.1 reflects the two classes’ grade frequency before experiment, reflecting the two classes on the distribution of the different scale grade, according to the chart shows the two classes of childrenreading ability level before the experiment.
    After 20 weeks, in order to verify whether the teaching with reading teaching based on input hypothesis was better at the ability improvement, there was another test. In the test, the test material is writing in the high-school examination in Henan province in 2015. The part of writing is 15 points. The results of post-test are as follows. Look at the following tables.
Table 4-3Comparison of the Experimental Class and Control Class reading Test  before and after the Experiment
 
  Control Class Experimental Class
reading test before the experiment 19.44 19.31
reading test after the experiment 21.56 23.69
 
It can be showed that the model of reading teaching based on Swain’s output theory can be helpful to develop the children’ability in English reading.
   The details of the usage are as follows:

4.1 Some general teaching principles

Reading is both a receptive language process and a psycholinguistics process. In other words, there is an essential interaction between language and though in reading process. English picture-books reading requires not only the kindergarten school children' active participation, predication and information processing, but also their background information and prior experience. During the teaching of the Stone Soup, the teacher can show some history stories to the children and make them know why the villagers don’t want the soldiers to come to their village.

4.1.1Making use of in-class teaching and after-class activities

Reading comprehensionhas been put focus on in some English tests. So the children are asked to get their development in reading. This suggests that the improvement of reading comprehensive for kindergarten children is the most important task in teaching. During the teaching of Stone Soup in class, the teacher can courage children to discuss the reason why the three soldiers are not welcome to the village to have them have chances to know more interesting history of France. After class, the teachers can courage children to search for the story with their parents in the internet and make some more information of the story.

4.1.2 Creating good English reading environment

    One of the main problems for some children to learn English well is a lack of the English learning environment. A good language learning environment is vital for children to pick up English well on the grounds of arousing their motivation in English study. It has greater effect on English learning of the children. Every teacher and every children should realize the crucial role that a good language learning environment plays in arousing the children' passion of learning foreign languages.
    According to Valeri R(2004), the most important action an English teacher takes is creating a climate for learning. To improve interactive classes, the English teacher should know how to arrange a series of classroom activities before class. The efficient activities include warming up in class and participating in the activities in English Corner after class. In addition, there are mainly several methods to create a good English learning environment. During the teaching of Stone Soup, the teacher can make up some lines to have children to act. In the action, the children can master the main clues of the story well.
    Firstly, English teacher should apply mediums, including linguistic visual (print), non-linguistic visual (pictures, regalia, and objects), and linguistic aural (speech), non-linguistic aural (such as the sound of water flowing, the sound of wind, etc.), and paralinguistic (gestures, eye contact, distance, etc.) to make the classroom actively. Various methods of teaching can make children interested in learning English.
    Secondly, teachers should give children more chances to listen to and speak. Teachers should create an English atmosphere in which children can listen to and speak English. This is very important. For example, teachers can play an English song before the class, watch a short English video, ask children to do a duty report, allow children to have a discussion in English, give children a topic to talk, or tell a story, and etc. In addition, teachers can create a real scene and lead children to accomplish assignment. This is an important part of the disposal of the environment in the English class. For example, while teaching some verbs, teachers can use body language to help their understanding. Take the teaching of “run ” as an example, we can pretend to run, and ask the children: “What am I doing?”. Then children will answer: “You are running.” In short, there are plenty of chances in the class for children to listen to and speak English.
    Thirdly, English teacher should adopt efficient processes and various teaching methods in English class. There are three processes in the English picture-books reading teaching, having good background knowledge in pre-reading, teaching reading skills in reading process, and making immediate reflection after reading. The integration of modern science and teaching is a good teaching method, such as apply PPT and videos.
    Besides, the creation of the English learning environment in the classroom or on the campus is also of importance. The classroom is the main place for children to carry out a variety of activities. let each side of the classroom wall, every corner and every item can "speak" English, the personification of the classroom environment can stimulate children' learning enthusiasm and strengthen the atmosphere of learning English. For example, an English corner, English slogans, English blackboard, English learning garden, and etc. Outside the classroom, disposing the campus environment is also important. The campus establishment ought to have the slogan in both English and Chinese. For instance, (1)班---class one ; 禁止踩踏草地---keep off the grass.
    What's more, more after-class activities should be organized so as to further enhance children' learning interest. The school or the class can hold various competitions, such as English speech , singing , reading or story-telling competition. An English evening can also arouse children' interest in English. Furthermore, there can also be a weekly English corner for children to use and practice English.

4.2Using various teaching patterns of reading

    The actual aim of language teaching is to cultivate the communicative ability of children. In order to cultivate the ability to applying knowledge and achieve the aim of communication, the following teaching patterns of efficient reading are given.

4.2.1 Story retelling

    After the children read some books, the teacher can encourage them to retell the stories. This is a better teaching pattern of efficient reading. In the course of reading, the children can make use of pictures, key words or phrases to express the main idea and the details. Before retelling, the teacher can ask children to remember some key words in mind when necessary. What also matters are which words can be used as clue words. The following are usually used as clue words: figures, ages, names of persons or places the new and different information and so on. When the children has found the key words likely to contain the information needed, they will be ready to begin telling. They also need to pay special attention the clue words.

4.2.2 Role playing

    Role play is a very common language learning activity where children paly different roles and interact from the view of the ones they play. According to the reading content, children should transform the main idea of the reading content into the dialogue and play it through the different roles. This teaching patter can make an in-depth impression for children.

4.2.3 Gap-filling

After reading, the teacher can provide the children with a summary of the text, leaving some blanks for the children to fill in. In this part, teachers should encourage children to use as many different words or expressions as possible.
Before gap-filling, teachers can ask children to scan for specific information, scan for vocabulary, and also to scan for certain structures. When conducting scanning activities, the teacher should bear in mind that the following things:
a. Set a time limit
b. Give clear tasks
c. Wait until seventy percent of the children finish the task
d. Make clear how they are going to get feedback
e. Make sure that answers to the scanning questions are scattered throughout the text rather than clustered at one place.

4.2.4 Culture mastered

The knowledge of culture plays a vital role in the process of English picture-books reading. The more knowledge of culture and background information children master, the faster for children to understand the passage, and also the better for children to learn a foreign language. Culture and language are closely related to each other. In English picture-books reading, some cultural factors may cause problems and influence the kindergarten children to grasp the real meaning. The children and teachers should make endeavors to accumulate cultural or background knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary that teachers should accumulate the knowledge of culture and background information.
Languages are the main transmitters and carriers of cultures. Teachers should work hard to help children achieve the following during the English learning process: understand foreign cultures, especially those of English speaking countries; use English appropriately; constantly broaden their cultural horizons; deepen their understanding of their own culture and develop an awareness of and ability in cross-cultural communication.
As a result, teachers should work hard to permeate culture and background knowledge to children in a many ways in their teaching. They can permeate culture consciousness in a number of way, such as by combining with the text content, by teaching vocabularies and by commenting on exercises. Gradually, teachers will help children accumulate more and more cultural knowledge, which will be of benefit to children' reading.

4.2.5 Rewriting after reading

Psychologists consider that writing is a sport that combing the brain nerve and muscles of hands, and enhancing the language knowledge further and is beneficial for the memory and mind training. The teachers should design writing exercise in a flexible way according to the content of reading.

4.2.6 Group Discussion

Good readers are able to adapt their reading skills to suit the reading material and the purpose of reading. Children who are good at reading will adopt different reading skills according to the passages and questions, thus to achieve effective reading. If they want to get a general idea of a book, they may adopt some useful method, and if they want to find specific information, they can use some specific method to get the information, and if they need a thorough understanding of a paragraph or a passage, they may use close-reading to achieve it. Of course, the different reading method should have different time limitation and reading speed. The children should finish a certain reading task within the certain time. The final task of teachers is to teach the children to apply the knowledge and finish the certain communicated task or express their personal views. So the discussion is coming to being.
Discussion in class is quite often used as a way of exploiting reading texts. And it is often used for exchange of personal opinions. This sort of discussion can start with a question like “What do you think of...?”For example, in the course of reading of the Stone Soup, the teacher can ask the children to discuss why the villagers refuse the soldiers to have some meals. Of course, when necessary, the teacher can use some questions to direct the children into the thinking and saying.
 

5. Conclusion

    This paper discusses efficient teaching of reading of English picture-books in the kindergartens and gives some suggestions based on the situation in the kindergartens.On the basis of the discussion of some theories of former researchers as well as some analysis of the ways of reading in the kindergartens, the author think the better ways to teach children to have efficient reading are to obey some general teaching principles and try various ways in readings.
 
 
 

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